Ludruk is the art of traditional dramas of East Java. Ludruk is a traditional drama that was exhibited by a group of art which was held on a stage by taking the stories of everyday people’s lives, stories of struggle and others are interspersed with jokes and accompanied by gamelan as a musical. Dialogue / monologue in ludruk are entertaining and make the audience laugh, using language typical of Surabaya, although sometimes there are guest stars from other areas such as Jombang, Malang, Madura, Madiun, Kediri with a different accent. Straightforward language that is used in ludruk, making it easily absorbed by the non-intellect (pedicab driver, patrolman, angkot driver, etc.).
Ludruk also include the type of traditional Javanese theater that was born and flourished in the midst of the people and based on the spontaneity of people’s lives. Ludruk submitted by appearance and easily digestible language community. In addition to functioning as the entertainment, performing arts also serves as a disclosure of the atmosphere of public life supporters. In addition, this art is also often used as the distribution of social criticism.
Ludruk have special features as follows. Players ludruk all composed of men, both for the role his own men as well as to the role of women. Therefore usual role of women, the players tend to be formed into groups ludruk travesti. The language used in ludruk is an easily digestible society, namely Surabaya dialect of Java language. In addition, in accordance with the demands of the story, in this art form are often used words of Chinese, Dutch, English and Japanese. In addition in terms of players and language, distinctiveness ludruk also contained in the stories, decorations, costumes and staging sequence. Ludruk story can be divided into two types, namely standard stories and fantasy stories. Standard story is the story about the leading figures of the East Java region, such as Cak Sakera and Sarif Tambak Yoso. Fantasy story is a story written by a particular individual who is usually associated with people’s lives everyday.
Until now nothing was certainty about the origin place of birth ludruk. Attempts to define it usually always hit on two different opinions. The first opinion says that this art originated from Surabaya, was of opinion that the two consider that ludruk derived from Jombang. These two arguments are equally strong arguments.
According to several sources and ludruk among artists, arts ludruk embryos first appeared around 1890. First it was Gangsar, a character who comes and Pandan village, Jombang. Gangsar this art was first coined in the form ngamen and jogetan (dance). He wanders and house to house. In these travels Gangsar then saw a man was holding his son who was crying. He was dressed women, and this is considered Gangsar funny and interesting, so he was compelled to ask why these women use clothes. According to the man, he wore women’s clothes to fool his son, to make her feel that she was being held by his mother. According to these sources, an event that is the origin of the emergence of men acting as women in the arts ludruk.
Other sources said that the odyssey began with a singer named Alim. As with Gangsar, in travels, Alim met a man who was comforting her child. The man was wearing women’s clothing. Told that comes from local Alim Krian who then wandered down to Jombang and Surabaya. In Alim travels accompanied by several of his friends. Together they introduced the art form and jogetan ngamen. Then it developed a form of group Alim became an art form that contains parikan and dialogue. Because the dances are performed always stamped (gedruk-gedruk) feet, art was later given the name “ludruk“.
Suspected, ludruk a folk culture that was born to “rebel” model of the palace and the palace of art a kind of puppet and ketoprak whose story is too elitist and not touch people. Ludruk stories generally raise the issue of small people’s lives everyday with the use of language that is more egalitarian and impressed “rough” without civility when compared with the language used in the puppet or ketoprak.
At the time of the revolution, ludruk not only serves as a means of entertainment but also a means of communication between underground fighters with the people who witnessed it. Grip-grip formed in ludruk activity concluded that state:
- Dance Ngeremo conclude a mockery of men who did not join to fight, women’s clothing and makeup but is played by men.
- Weloed (wedo’ane loedroek) brought the opening theme song which will provide a picture of a situation that should be aspired to in life is played by the transvestite-hermaphrodite.
- Ngidung brought poetry that essentially represents what should be fought by the people in situations and conditions that exist today. There are four grooves which are:
- Jokes to impress that this poem is not serious
- Seriously, which tells the story missions and a play that will be delivered
- A very funny joke, to remove the impression of previous serious
- Concluding with the impression of an apology if there are parties that offended by what has been delivered.
- The play, which is a drama that concluded the situation that happened at this time.
Ludruk realistically play the courage to express concern for the people who are colonized. In addition, this art form contains elements that promote the struggle. Ludruk own costume consists of red and white colors that reflect the national flag of Indonesia. In the Japanese era ludruk serves as a media art criticism of the government. This seems especially in ludruk Cak famous Durasim parikan “Pagupon omahe dara, melok Nippon tambah sengsara“. With such parikan Durasim Cak was successfully arouse public resentment against the Japanese. Cak Durasim eventually captured and died in Japanese custody.
In the days of the Republic of Indonesia, art ludruk still alive and thriving as a traditional folk art form of theater. However, if the period of this art sebeluninya serves as distributor of social criticism, during which then shifted into the transmitter function of government policy. In addition, ludruk also used as media promotion of certain merchandise by a particular sponsor. According to the census conducted by the Regional Office of Arts Education and Culture of East Java, until 1985 there were 58 clubs with 1530 people ludruk players. This amount can be quite a lot and shows that the public interest in East Java (Surabaya) of this art form is still quite large.
In 1994, the group lived 14 ludruk circumference alone group. They play in the villages who do not have electricity at the rate IDR Rp 350. This group is supported by 50-60 players. Their income is very minimal, namely: Rp 1500 – 2500 /night. When the show deserted, was forced to take the cash money to eat.
Ludruk and legend
Some community members who met and interviewed at random, such as rickshaw drivers, employees of a photocopy shop, still can tell stories ludruk well, the characters of the story, associations, and leading players ludruk player. Speaking of ludruk, certainly comes to mind we are Kartolo. Kartolo is a legendary comedian ludruk from Surabaya, East Java. He has more than 40 years of living in the art world ludruk. Kartolo name and distinctive voice, the jokes are innocent and intelligent, is known almost all over East Java, even to Central Java. Kartolo already active in the art world ludruk since the era of the 1960s. He founded the group ludruk Kartolo CS.
Kartolo CS consists of Kartolo, Basman, Sapari, Sokran, Blonthang, Tini (wife Kartolo), incorporated in art karawitan Sawunggaling Surabaya. Each player has a unique and distinctive character, and have a kind of ‘grammar’ itself. For example Kartolo the most intelligent, so often told ‘ngakali’ other players, Basman who have great voices and talk shut, and Sapari are often naughty, but even so the victim. But this gold formation do not survive until now. What remains is Kartolo, Tini and Sapari. Basman, Sokran and Blonthang had died. Until now Kartolo and Sapari still often appear on JTV (TV Jawapos) in Surabaya.
Surely not just that a legend ludruk Kartolo. There were other names are like Cak Durasimn, Agus Kuprit, Sidik, Ning Lasiana, Markeso, Bawong SN and Umi Kulsum. Even the name of the latter is obtained from the Imam Oetomo Special awards, East Java Governor for his service in the world Ludruk. Grandma is the age of 85 years has been more than 55 Years as an artist ludruk. Of them 46 years passed with broadcast ludruk RRI Surabaya. Although never graduated from grammar school, at the RRI ludruk loyalty together, Umi Kulsum appointed as civil servants with the rank of class II A in 1981 by Ali Murtopo, Information Minister at that time. Until now, although the numbers are relatively small and in pretty alarming, there are still some groups ludruk expanding in Surabaya, Malang, Jombang, and surrounding areas, which remain on hold performances, including a group Cak Kartolo Cs.
Currently we are still awaiting the emergence of new ludruk groups that revives the glory of art ludruk. Or at least we still remember the names of such legendary Ludruk Brata, Ludruk Dradjit, Ludruk Budi Utama, Ludruk Tjoleke, Ludruk Kolekturan, Ludruk Budidojo, Ludruk Karen, Ludruk Bakri, Ludruk Murba, Ludruk Drais Ludruk Bull Marhaen, Ludruk Suluh Marhaen, Ludruk Marhaen Young, Ambassador Ludruk Masa, Ludruk Arum Dalu, Ludruk Putra Bahari, Ludruk Odadi Kari, Ludruk Marhaen, Ludruk Tresna Enggal, Ludruk Let Katon, Ludruk Massa, Ludruk Sari Pillars, Ludruk Rhythm Enggal, Ludruk Massa Pillars, Ludruk Panca Bakti, Ludruk Djoko Muntjul, Ludruk Sido Dadi Slamet, Ludruk Mulya Kuntjara, Ludruk New Flow, Ludruk Nusantara, Ludruk Bond South Malang, etc.. Spread in Jombang, Malang, Surabaya and surrounding areas.
Ludruk as laboratory wisdom
The process of human life is often marred by all coincidence, aksidential, can not always be planned with a common sense of competition as teaching philosophy of living in which rampant capitalism and modernization today. And best of ludruk Kartolo teaching is how to respond to life with simplicity, not with the arrogant and full of lust. An example is in one of her role, Queen Worms Anil, where Kartolo role as King Minohek. As the rulers and the people who have various kasekten and privileges, it turns out King Minohek just a dream. King Minohek just slapstick, it is often not a reality that is played by real human beings. King Minohek is just a speck of arrogance to control everything, while he himself did not know that it’s all just wishful thinking. Ngglethek it was just a dream.
In the words of artist Andy Warhol popart, “In the future everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes“. With all the effort and prayer we all hope that the arts ludruk still there and maybe someday will come back big. Hopefully ..
yu..painten kleleken jendelo, cekap semanten gacoran kulo
courtesy pic by:
- Save Our Culture -> http://dewey.petra.ac.id/jiunkpe_dg_13388_16.html
- Cak Kartolo -> http://www.mahesajenar.com/2006/09/ludruk_kartolo_cs.html
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